There are five types of Kashaya Kalpanas (Pharmaceutics) as basic procedure explained in Ayurvedic Science with shorter shelf life for immediate usage in patient:
Svarasa (Fresh Juice)
Kalka (Fine Paste)
Hima (Cold Infusion)
Phanta (Hot Infusion)
1. Svarasa (Fresh juice): Svarasa is also known as rasa, svarasa and sadyahgrihita rasa. The juice taken out from a fresh green herb, well pounded and squeezed through a cloth is known as svarasa. In general the drug is expressed for instant procurement of juice (rasa).
Svarasa kalpana is of three types on the basis of source and method -
a. Green and fresh plant drugs (Haritoushadha), e.g. Guduchi Swarasa
b. Dried Raw Drugs (Shushkoushadha),
c. Putapaka Rasa (heat processing), e.g. Vasapatra Putapaka
2. Kalka (Paste): Drug material, especially crude substance obtained from vegetable sources or plant drug either in fresh or dried state, is soaked, wet or mixed with little water and pounded (pishta) on vessel or apparatus (e.g. grinder, mixer etc.) for preparing the paste or lump (kalka).
Kalka is also known as prakshepa, avapa and kalka. Kalka may be prepared of green or fresh as well as dried drug material in practice, e.g. Nimbapatra Kalaka.
3. Kvatha (Decoction): Kvatha is the decoction obtained by boiling coarse powder or drugs in proportion of 4, 8 or 16 times (for mrududravya (soft drugs) – 4 times; madhyamadravya (medium drugs) – 8 times; and for kathinadravya (hard drugs) – 16 times respectively) of water reduced to one –fourth and stained in cloth, e.g. Triphala Kvatha.
4. Hima (Cold Infusion): The raw drug is crushed or powdered coarsely (in quantity of 1 pala= 48 gm) is mixed and soaked (in quantity of 6 pala=288 gm) in water for whole night. In morning it is filtered and this medicated liquid is collected which is called as hima (cold infusion).
Hima kashaya is, thus, prepared in cold water (while phanta is made in hot water). As general proportion, powdered drug 24 gms is soaked in 144 ml water and retained for a night. Lastly, the liquid is strained in morning, e.g. Dhanyaka Hima.
5. Phanta (Hot Infusion): First of all, the powder or coarse powder is prepared of drug material and then it is mixed in hot water-in boiling stage and same is retained as such for some time. When it cools down, it (liquid) is strained or filtered and this medicated liquid is known as phanta, e.g. Yashtimadhu Phanta.
Dr. P. Srinivas